DATA, SOURCES AND USAGE

Use strategies for identifying data and information in conversation and newspapers.

Data is the raw fact or unorganized information while information is a processed or well arranged data.


Strategies in this context are ways to identify and collect data from conversation and newspapers. In conversations;

  1. Pay attention from the beginning to the end. This will help you keep the conversation in mind after its over. Keeping the conversation in mind helps to identify the most important part of it and store on your computer or on any other material as data or information.
  2. Write down important points. If you find it difficult to keep information in mind, put down important points on a piece of paper or in a handheld note book as the conversation goes on. Sit down after the conversation and take a look at your points again, cancel the less important ones and keep the most important ones as your data or information.
  3. Record the conversation with an audio recorder but should be under permission because not everyone wants to be recorded. After recording the conversation, you can sit and relax while you listen and identify the information you really need from it.
  4. Avoid distractions. You have to avoid side distractions during conversations to help you concentrate.
  5. If the conversation is between you and someone, take notice of the person’s actions as he/she speaks to help you realize the emphasised information. For example, when someone speaks about important things in a conversation, the hand and facial expressions are used to show how important that part of the conversation is.
    In newspapers;
  6. Read and understand headings. After understanding the heading, it will help you to identify the most important things as you read.
  7. Take notice of emphasised words or sentences (words or sentences in deep ink) as they show how important that word or phrase is.
  8. As you read, use pencil to underline key or important words or sentences.
  9. Do not skip introductions because it usually summarises the information you are about to read.

Use strategies for classifying data into information

Teacher(Tr): guide pupils to go from class to class (primary classes) with their pens and a piece of papers or note books to record the number of pupils in each class including theirs (both boys and girls).


(We are doing this because we want to know the total number of boys and girls and the overall total of pupils in the primary school)


After recording the data from primary one to six, lead pupils to use the tabulation strategy to arrange or classify the data, add numbers that needs to be added to make it more meaningful (information). Assist pupils to use a spreadsheet program (eg. Microsoft Excel) to present their information.

Sample;

CLASSBOYSGIRLSTOTAL
1101222
2151025
3152035
4201232
5251035
6151227
TotalTotalOverall total
10076176

Identify primary sources of information

Sources of information are where we get information from. Primary sources of information are where we get information from for the first time. Some of the primary sources of information are ; photographs, audio recordings, video recordings, autobiographies, films, newspapers, journals, letters and diaries, speeches, oral histories, published books, etc.

When it happens that someone has already done a research and collected data from any of the primary sources mentioned above and has organized his data into information in his note book, if you go for that information, then his book becomes your secondary source of information but not primary source of information.

When you interview someone about himself, whatever information the person gives to you is firsthand information and that makes the person’s speech your primary source of information.

Another scenario is, assuming you are not at home and your father is about to travel and cannot wait for you to return before he leaves. He can make an audio recording about his departure and when to return and leave the recorder behind for you. That recording then becomes your primary source of information.

Refer to notes on Basic 6 sub-strand 3 for Sending and sharing information and Basic manipulations on sample data.