Short notes on the new GES curriculum, 2019. Computing for primary five (Basic five).

Strand 1: Introduction to computing

Sub-strand 1: Generation of computers and parts of a computer and other gadgets.

What are output devices?

Output devices

Output devices are computer devices that bring out processed data (information) from the computer’s system. The information can be in the form of texts, audio, video or images. Examples of output devices and the kind of output they produce are;

  • Monitor   –   softcopy (texts, pictures), video
  • Printer     –     hardcopy (printed documents and images)
  • Speaker    –      audio
  • Projector     –       softcopy (texts, pictures), video
  • Headphones   – audio

Monitor is the TV-like part of the computer that displays texts, pictures and videos. Texts and images displayed by the monitor are also referred to as softcopy because they can’t be touched.

Printer is an output device that is used to print texts or images onto the surface of a paper permanently. Output from a printer is termed hardcopy because it can be touched or felt.

Speaker is an output device that is used to play out audio or sound from the computer.

Projector is an output device that displays texts, mages, or videos on a smooth surface of another object.

Headphones also play audio from the computer but it is not as loud as the audio from the speaker and it is usually used by one person.

The basic difference between analog and digital devices

Analog devices receive analog signals, meaning the signal they receive is not changed into any form but are used directly to transmit information. Examples are analog watch, analog radio and telephone.

Unlike analog devices, digital devices do not directly use analog signals but receives analog signals and convert them into numbers or digital signals to transmit information. Examples of digital devices are computers, mobile phones and tablets.

Similarity between analog and digital computers

The basic similarity between analog and digital devices is that, they all transmit information and are also electronic. Despite the difference in how these signals work; where analog devices take direct waves and digital devices converts the direct waves into numbers, they both transmit information.

Computer mouse

A computer mouse is a hardware component of a computer and also an input device that is used by clicking and scrolling.
It basically has three buttons, left button, right button and a scroll button between the left and the right buttons.

Terms in mouse skills and their meanings

Clicking; it is the act of pressing and releasing the left mouse button once.

Right clicking; it is the act of pressing and releasing the right mouse button once.

Double clicking; it is the process of pressing and releasing the left mouse button twice quickly.

Triple clicking; it is the act of pressing and releasing the left mouse button trice quickly.

Drag and drop; it is the process of clicking and holding down the left mouse button on an object to move it from one place to another. When the object reaches its new location then you release the button.

Sections of keys on the keyboard

Basically in typing, the keys are in four sections. The top row keys, the home row keys, the bottom row keys and the numerical pad.

Top row keys

The top row keys are; Q, W, E, R, T, Y, U, I, O, P.
The left fingers are used for pressing Q, W, E, R, T keys and the right fingers are used for pressing Y, U, I, O, P keys.

Home row keys

The home row keys are; A, S, D, F, J, K, L, ;(semicolon).
The left fingers are used for pressing A,S,D,F keys and the right fingers are used for pressing J,K,L,; keys.

Bottom row keys

The bottom row are; Z, X, C, V, B, N, M, ,(comma), .(period), /(forward).
The left fingers are placed on the Z,X,C,V,B keys and the right fingers are placed on the N,M,,,.,/ keys.

Numerical pad

This is a group of number keys usually on the right side of the keyboard starting from 0 to 9. It also has an addition key(+), subtraction key(-), enter key, delete key, forward slash key(/) and the Num Lock key.Mostly the right and left thumbs are placed on the Spacebar.

Introduction to Windows Interface

Features of Windows 10 Interface

Features of the windows 10 interface are the things we see on the windows 10 desktop. They are the parts of windows 10 desktop designed and developed by Microsoft to make the usage of computer easier for computer users.

List of the features of windows 10

  • Start button; it is used to access the start menu.
  • Start menu; it opens when you press the windows key or click on the start button. It contains all the applications on the computer and other important features. Start menu of windows 10 looks different from that of windows 8 and 8.1 and looks similar to that of windows 7 but modified.
  • Xbox app; it is an application in windows 10 used to stream games from an Xbox console. It can also be used to connect to friends over a network to chat on game issues.
  • Cortana; it is a feature of windows 10 which is used to search for things on a computer and on the internet.
  • Microsoft Edge; it was previously called Spartan Browser. It is a browser application used to surf the internet.
  • Taskbar; it is the horizontal bar at the bottom of the desktop. It has some features like start button, search box, View Task icon, pinned apps and notification area/system tray.
  • Wallpaper; it serves as the background for the desktop.

Summary of the generation of computers

The first generation of computers existed between the years 1940 and 1956. Their main piece of technology was vacuum tubes which made them very big in size and can take up the space of a room. They were very slow and perform a task at a time. The second generation of computers came to exist from 1956 to 1963. Their piece of technology was transistors and not vacuum tubes because transistors were smaller in size than the vacuum tubes. They were easy to build and faster in terms of speed. 1964 to 1971 is when the third generation of computers existed. Main technology in the third generation computers was integrated circuits (IC).with the idea of making them more faster and smaller in size. From 1971 till now, forth generation of computers are still existing.They use microprocessor popularly known as central processing unit (CPU) to process data. The fifth generation has emerged which uses artificial intelligence (AI) which is not as popular as the common CPU computers.

Sub-Strand 2: Introduction to MS-Windows Interface (Desktop background and locations of the computer).

The desktop background is called Wallpaper which could be a picture or a colour.

How to change the desktop background on Windows 10.

  1. Right click on an empty space on the desktop.
  2. Click on Personalize from the drop-down menu.
  3. Click on the picture you to use under Choose your picture.
  4. Close the settings window

Change the wallpaper to your own picture on the computer

You can take a picture of pupils with your phone, transfer to the computer or lead them to create a picture with the paint application and guide them through the procedure below to use it as the wallpaper.

  1. Right-click an empty space on the desktop.
  2. Click on Personalize from the pop-up menu.
  3. Click on Browse under Choose your picture.
  4. Open the folder in which your picture is located.
  5. Click on the picture.
  6. Click on Choose picture.
  7. Close the settings window.

How to change the wallpaper to a colour

  1. Right-click an empty space on the desktop.
  2. Click on Personalize from the pop-up menu.
  3. Click on the rectangular shape with the down-pointing arrow under Background.
  4. Click on Solid color.
  5. Click on the colour you want under Background colors.
  6. Close the settings window.

How to arrange the icons on the desktop

The icons on the desktop can be arranged according to Name, Size, Item type and Date modified.
The procedure to arrange the icons on the desktop;

  1. Right-click on an empty space on the desktop.
  2. Put the mouse pointer on Sort by.
  3. There would be a pop-up menu with four options, Name, Size, Item type and Date modified. Click on the one you want to arrange your icons according to.

The procedure involved in hiding the taskbar on Windows 10

  1. Right-click on the taskbar.
  2. Click on Properties from the pop-up menu.
  3. Click on Auto-hide the taskbar.
  4. Click on Apply.
  5. Click on Ok

How to pin an application to the start menu on Windows 10

To pin an application to the start menu means to make the application stick to the start menu.

  1. Click on the start button or press the windows key to open the start menu.
  2. Click on All apps from the start menu.
  3. Locate the app you want to pin and right-click on it.
  4. Click on Pin to start.

How to pin an application to the taskbar on Windows 10

  1. Click on the start button or press the windows key to open the start menu.
  2. Click on All apps from the start menu.
  3. Locate the app you want to pin and right-click on it.
  4. Click on Pin to taskbar.

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